How to connect to wireless network from command line without GUI in Ubuntu

While trying to fix my Gnome Display Manager, apt-get removed several other packages besides gdm when I marked it for removal it. I had no GUI and no internet connection. I needed a way to connect to the internet to sudo apt-get install gdm (install gdm back).

I first had to find out the interface of my wifi card:
lshw -C network
this shows the network interfaces available on your system. Where it says logical name, this is what the interface is. lshw is a tool used to find hardware configuration information. my interface showed wmaster0, but for some reason it actually is wlan0.
I did:
sudo ifconfig wlan0 up to bring up the interface
sudo iwlist wlan0 scan to find my network
sudo iwconfig wlan0 essid "NETGEAR" key (10digitWEP) to connect
sudo dhclient wlan0 to get an assigned IP with DHCP

Didn’t work because I had WPA set up and for that I would need wpa supplicant, so I disabled the WPA on my router and typed:
sudo iwconfig wlan0 essid "NETGEAR" key off
sudo dhclient wlan0

worked!

I was going to write a detailed guide about troubleshooting the wireless from the command line, but then I found this great article by ubuntugeek.

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